This FOA invites applications for a project for the development of a research planning infrastructure by a multidisciplinary collaborative team to develop target identification (ID) strategies based on effects of genetic factors reliably associated with increased human lifespan and/or health span. The phrase "target ID strategy" refers to a concerted set of applied research approaches (e.g., additional analyses, conducting required types of studies/ experiments and methodologies in the appropriate sequence) leading to the identification of genetic factors, pathways, or molecules by which activities could be favorably modified. Planning activities to be conducted by the U24 project include the creation of an integrated database of relevant data, informatics and computational tools for assessing the effects of favorable gene variants, evaluating their potential utility for developing therapeutic ID strategies, developing plans for experiments and analyses aimed at identifying one or more therapeutic target(s) and establishing a publicly available resource. Core areas of expertise which should be represented in the U24 multidisciplinary team include genetics, genomics, epidemiology, aging research, translational genomics, drug development, statistics, and bioinformatics. Support for implementation of the target identification strategies developed by the U24 project could be requested in the future through other FOAs. New population or family studies on genetic factors influencing longevity are also outside the scope of this FOA.