This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) is issued as an initiative of the NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research. The Neuroscience Blueprint is a collaborative framework through which 16 NIH Institutes, Centers and Offices jointly support neuroscience-related research, with the aim of accelerating discoveries and reducing the burden of nervous system disorders (for further information, see http://neuroscienceblueprint.nih.gov/). The goal of this FOA is to encourage research grant applications that propose to develop or substantially modify existing cutting edge technologies that will advance glial cell research, discovery-based research on glial cell diversity, development and/or function in the central (CNS) and peripheral (PNS) nervous systems. The primary objective of this FOA is to remove barriers to glial cell research that are due to the scarcity of tools, methods and technologies to target and identify glial cells in a rigorous manner. Applications should aim to transform the field of glial cell research by generating tools that will be widely used throughout the neuroscience community. Research supported by this initiative will (i) provide new tools for manipulating and identifying glial cells based on their heterogeneity, developmental stage or functional state; and /or (ii) tools to allow investigation of glial function and processes, thus contributing to our understanding of normal and abnormal neural function.