This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) issued by the NIH Basic Behavioral and Social Sciences Opportunity Network (OppNet) solicits Research Project grant (R01) applications from institutions and organizations that propose to investigate basic psychological, social, and environmental mechanisms and processes linking psychosocial stressors and behavior. This FOA will facilitate investigation of multiple and potentially bidirectional pathways underlying the behavioral, environmental, and psychosocial link(s) between psychosocial stressors and behaviors that may ultimately impact biological function, health, and disease. Applicants are encouraged to use innovative and integrative designs to elucidate how psychological, social, and psychosocial environmental factors impact the processes by which stressors become coupled with and influenced by behaviors. Applications examining moderating factors such as individual demographic (age, gender/sex, ethnicity) and psychological (vulnerabilities, resilience) differences, risk factors, timing of exposure to stressors, and environments are desirable. This research will provide a deeper understanding of the psychological, environmental, and social processes that ultimately connect psychosocial stress and behaviors and consequently physiological processes, health, and disease.