Purpose.On February 26, 2004, Executive Order 13329 (http://a257.g.akamaitech.net/7/257/2422/14mar20010800/edocket.access.gpo... ) was signed by President George W. Bush requiring SBIR/STTR agencies, to the extent permitted by law and in a manner consistent with the mission of the Department, to give high priority within the SBIR and STTR programs to manufacturing-related research and development (R&D).In response to this Executive Order, NIH is expanding its focus by encouraging eligible United States small business concerns to submit SBIR Phase I, Phase II, and Fast-Track grant applications whose biomedical research is related to advanced processing, manufacturing processes, equipment and systems, and manufacturing workforce skills and protection. Mechanism of Support. This FOA will utilize the SBIR (R43/R44) grant mechanisms for Phase I, Phase II, and Fast-Track applications and runs in parallel with a FOA of identical scientific scope, PA-09-114, which encourages applications under the Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) (R41/R42) grant mechanisms. Funds Available and Anticipated Number of Awards. Awards issued under this FOA are contingent upon the availability of funds and the submission of a sufficient number of meritorious applications.The total amount awarded and the number of awards will depend upon the quality, duration, and costs of the applications received.