Purpose. On December 19, 2007, President George W. Bush signed into law the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (Act), P.L. 110-140. This Act requires SBIR/STTR agencies, whenever possible and appropriate, to give high priority within the SBIR and STTR programs to energy efficiency or renewable energy system research and development projects (R&D). As part of the implementation of this Act, this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) encourages eligible United States small business concerns (SBCs) whose biomedical research is related to energy efficiency or renewable energy systems, to submit SBIR Phase I, Phase II, and Fast-Track grant applications for R&D projects in those areas. Mechanism of Support. This FOA will utilize the SBIR (R43/R44) grant mechanisms for Phase I, Phase II, Fast-Track, and Phase II Competing Renewal applications (NIH only), and runs in parallel with an FOA of identical scientific scope, PA-09-101, that solicits applications under the Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) (R41/R42) grant mechanisms. Funds Available and Anticipated Number of Awards. Awards issued under this FOA are contingent upon the availability of funds and the submission of a sufficient number of meritorious applications. The total amount awarded and the number of awards will depend upon the quality, duration, and costs of the applications received.