The Mentored Patient-Oriented Research Center Development Award program (K23) increases human resources for patient-oriented research. Similar to the K08, the K23 trains "aspiring clinician-scientists" to become independent researchers. However, an investigator must focus on patient-oriented research. NIA normally allows $25,000 in research development support per year but will support up to $50,000 a year when the costs generated by the patient-oriented research protocol(s) require these additional funds. The request for additional funds must be justified in the application by the additional costs associated with pursuing these particular protocol(s).