Scientists report important step in biomarker testing for Alzheimer's Disease
Scientists have made a significant step forward in developing a test to help diagnose the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease sooner and more accurately by measuring two biomarkers—tau and beta-amyloid proteins—in cerebrospinal fluid. In a new report, researchers from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) not only confirmed that certain changes in biomarker levels in cerebrospinal fluid may signal the onset of mild Alzheimer’s, but also established a method and standard of testing for these biomarkers. ADNI is a research partnership supported primarily by the National Institute on Aging (NIA), part of the National Institutes of Health, with private sector support through the Foundation for NIH, seeking to find neuroimaging and biomarker tests that can detect Alzheimer’s disease progression and measure the effectiveness of potential therapies.
These are the first cerebrospinal fluid biomarker findings to be reported by ADNI, a $60-million, five-year research program launched in 2004 to observe and track changes in some 800 older people in the United States and Canada with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI)—a condition that often precedes Alzheimer’s—or the early stages of Alzheimer’s. The ADNI Biomarker Core at the University of Pennsylvania’s School of Medicine in Philadelphia, headed by Leslie M. Shaw, Ph.D., and John Q. Trojanowski, MD., Ph.D., led the study, which is reported online March 17 in the Annals of Neurology.
“Research indicates that Alzheimer’s pathology causes changes in the brain some 10 to 20 years before any symptoms appear,” said NIA Director Richard J. Hodes, M.D. “This work gives researchers a systematic and reliable method to measure changes in cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers that may herald the onset of Alzheimer’s disease. More research is needed to validate these findings, but this study takes us one step closer to providing researchers and clinicians with tools to detect and understand the very early signs of the disease.”
The researchers collected cerebrospinal fluid from 410 ADNI volunteers at 56 different sites, tested the samples for the tau and beta-amyloid protein biomarkers associated with Alzheimer’s pathology, and then retested the volunteers a year later to track changes in cognition. The scientists also compared the ADNI cerebrospinal fluid samples to those collected from an independent group of 56 people who were later confirmed in autopsy to have had Alzheimer’s and from 52 older people with normal cognition.
This comprehensive analysis allowed the scientists to systematically confirm earlier studies on cerebrospinal fluid findings and to develop biomarker profiles that may signal the onset of the disease. Among their findings:
- Levels of beta-amyloid protein, in particular beta-amyloid 1-42, were lower among ADNI volunteers with MCI compared to those with normal cognition, and lower still among those diagnosed with mild Alzheimer’s disease. Decreased levels of this biomarker in the cerebrospinal fluid may indicate that this least soluble form of amyloid is forming sticky plaques between neurons, a hallmark of Alzheimer’s.
- Levels of beta-amyloid 1-42 proved to be the most sensitive biomarker, with an overall test accuracy rate of 87 percent in detecting Alzheimer’s pathology in the ADNI volunteers and in people with autopsy-confirmed Alzheimer’s.
- Levels of tau were higher among ADNI volunteers with MCI than among people with normal cognition, and even higher among the volunteers diagnosed with mild Alzheimer’s disease. Tau, a protein released by damaged and dying brain cells, can form tangles within cells and may prevent neurons from communicating with each other.
- In addition to cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers levels, the researchers factored in a known genetic risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease—the gene APOE-e4—into their analysis. The gene occurs in about 40 percent of all people who develop Alzheimer’s at age 65 or later, but how it increases risk is not yet known. ADNI volunteers with APOE-e4 genes, high levels of tau and low levels of amyloid were most likely to have mild Alzheimer’s.The scientists noted that all 37 ADNI volunteers diagnosed with MCI at the start of the study were documented as having probable Alzheimer’s disease a year later. That conversion could be predicted by their cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers, since their baseline profiles were similar to ADNI volunteers already diagnosed with the disease. Conversely, three ADNI volunteers with MCI at the start of the study, but whose cerebrospinal fluid biomarker levels were similar to volunteers free of the disease, reverted back to normal cognition by the end of the study.
“This effort may open the door to the discovery of an entire panel of cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers that will not only predict those at risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease, but also reveal how the disease is responding to therapies,” said Neil Buckholtz, Ph.D., of the NIA Division of Neuroscience. “Like all ADNI results, these findings have been posted to a publicly accessible database available to qualified researchers worldwide.”
To date, more than 800 researchers have signed up for ADNI database access. Investigators may apply for access through the database Web site at www.loni.ucla.edu/ADNI . In addition, qualified scientists may also ask for access to the cerebrospinal fluid and blood samples. An application form is available under the “Scientist Home Page” link at www.adni-info.org .
In addition to the NIA, the ADNI public-private partnership includes federal support from the National Institute for Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, also part of NIH, and the participation of the Food and Drug Administration. Private sector support comes from pharmaceutical companies and other organizations through the Foundation for NIH, which has raised more than $25 million from both corporations and non-profits toward ADNI. Current private sector funders include Abbott Laboratories, AstraZeneca AB, Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eisai Global Clinical Development, Elan Corporation, Genentech, General Electric Healthcare, GlaxoSmithKline, Innogenetics, Johnson & Johnson, Eli Lilly and Co., Inc., Merck & Co., Inc., Novartis AG, Pfizer Inc, F. Hoffmann-La Roche, Schering-Plough, Synarc Inc., and Wyeth Research, as well as non-profit partners the Alzheimer’s Association and the Institute for the Study of Aging.
The Foundation for the National Institutes of Health was established by the United States Congress to support the mission of the National Institutes of Health—improving health through scientific discovery. The foundation identifies and develops opportunities for innovative public-private partnerships involving industry, academia, and the philanthropic community. A non-profit, 501(c)(3) corporation, the Foundation raises private-sector funds for a broad portfolio of unique programs that complement and enhance NIH priorities and activities. The Foundation's Web site address is www.fnih.org.
The NIA leads the federal government effort conducting and supporting research on the biomedical, social and behavioral issues of older people. For more information on aging-related research and the NIA, go to www.nia.nih.gov. The NIA provides information on age-related cognitive change and neurodegenerative disease specifically at its Alzheimer’s Disease Education and Referral (ADEAR) Center site at www.nia.nih.gov/alzheimers. To sign up for e-mail alerts about new findings or publications, please visit either website.
The NIH—The Nation’s Medical Research Agency—includes 27 institutes and centers and is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. It is the primary federal agency for conducting and supporting basic, clinical and translational medical research, and it investigates the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit www.nih.gov.