Zika Virus and Older Adults
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Zika virus disease is spread to people through the bite of an infected mosquito. It can be transferred from person to person through close, intimate contact. Most reported Zika cases are among people living in Central and South America, though cases have also been confirmed in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the Caribbean. People with Zika typically show mild symptoms or none at all. If symptoms do present, they can last up to a week.
This article offers information about Zika virus—including transmission, symptoms, prevention, and treatment—and its implications for older adults, who may be particularly vulnerable. If you live in an area where cases of Zika have been reported, you should also consult your State or local health department.
How Does Zika Spread?
Zika virus is transmitted to people through the bite of an infected mosquito species, called Aedes. This species spreads other viruses, like dengue and chikungunya, too. These mosquitoes lay eggs in and around areas of standing water. They bite more aggressively during the day but can also bite at night.
Once a mosquito has transferred the virus to a person, it can be spread from person to person in a few ways:
- A pregnant woman can pass Zika to the fetus during pregnancy.
- A person with Zika can pass it to his or her sexual partners through sex.
- It can be passed through blood transfusions.
What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Zika?
The most common symptoms of Zika are:
- Joint pain
- Conjunctivitis—red eyes
Other symptoms include muscle pain and headaches. Since people with Zika may show no signs, many do not know they have been infected. If you do present with symptoms, they typically last a few days to a week. Your doctor can give you a blood or urine test to determine for sure if you have the virus, but only while the virus is in your system. Zika virus usually remains in the blood of an infected person for about a week.
Should Older Adults Worry About Zika?
It’s true that pregnant women are strongly cautioned about Zika, as the virus can have serious health consequences for newborn babies. However, this does not mean older adults are not at risk. In fact, Zika can have specific implications for older adults:
- As people age, their immune systems weaken. This can make it harder to fight off illness and infection. It may be more difficult for an older person to recover from Zika than a younger person. It may also make the body more susceptible to other illnesses.
- Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is associated both with older age and Zika virus. GBS is a rare disorder that causes a person’s immune system—how the body fights off disease—to damage its own nerve cells. It can cause muscle weakness and paralysis, sometimes affecting the muscles that control a person’s breathing. In severe cases, GBS can result in death. Risk for GBS increases with age, and people age 50 and older are most affected.
- Age does not protect you from sexually transmitted diseases. Zika can be passed from a person who has the virus to his or her sex partners. No matter how old you are, you should practice safe sex and use condoms if you or your partner show symptoms or have recently traveled to an area where Zika is found.
Can Zika Be Prevented and Treated?
Take efforts to prevent Zika virus. You should:
- Avoid travel to areas where cases of Zika have been reported.
- Use insect repellent spray or lotion and bug netting to avoid mosquito bites, especially if traveling to an area with Zika.
- Practice safe sex. Use a condom if you or your partner have recently traveled to an area with Zika.
Currently, there is no specific treatment for Zika virus. But, you can treat the symptoms. For example, you can take acetaminophen to reduce fever and pain. Be sure to talk with your doctor before taking any new medications. You should also take steps to stay healthy overall. Be sure to drink plenty of water and get enough rest.
For More Information About How Older Adults Can Stay Safe from Zika
This content is provided by the NIH National Institute on Aging (NIA). NIA scientists and other experts review this content to ensure it is accurate and up to date.
November 08, 2016