Purpose. This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA), using The Midcareer Investigator Award in Mouse Pathobiology Research Award (K26) issued by NCRR, NIH, seeks to support established, outstanding pathobiologists by providing protected time for mouse pathobiology research and mentoring of beginning investigators, thus relieving them of time-consuming institutional service obligations and administration responsibilities. Mechanism of Support. This FOA will utilize the K26 grant mechanism. Funds Available and Anticipated Number of Awards. Awards issued under this FOA are contingent upon the availability of funds and the submission of a sufficient number of meritorious applications. Budget and Project Period.Funding for salary and fringe benefits for up to 50 percent effort at the current NIH extramural salary cap (in FY 2008: $191,300 per annum; i.e., a maximum of $95,650 for 50 percent effort). Eligible Institutions/Organizations. Institutions/organizations listed in Section III, 1.A. are eligible to apply. Sponsoring institutions must have a well-established mouse pathobiology research and training program, provide a high-quality research environment, and demonstrate a commitment to the development of the candidate as a productive, independent investigator. Eligible Project Director/Principal Investigator (PD/PI). Include Individuals with the skills, knowledge, and resources necessary to carry out the proposed research are invited to work with their institution/organization to develop an application for support. Individuals from underrepresented racial and ethnic groups as well as individuals with disabilities are always encouraged to apply for NIH support. Number of PDs/PIs. No more than one PD/PI may be designated on the application. Number of Applications. Applicants should not submit more than one application, unless the combined effort two K26 applications do not exceed 50% effort, and each application is scientifically distinct and provides appropriate mentoring Resubmissions.Applicants may submit a resubmission application, but such application must include an Introduction addressing the previous peer review critique (Summary Statement). Beginning with applications intended for the January 25, 2009 official submission due date, all original new applications (i.e., never submitted) and competing renewal applications will be permitted only a single amendment (A1).See http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/NOT-OD-09-003.html and NOT-OD-09-016.Original new and competing renewal applications that were submitted prior to January 25, 2009 will be permitted two amendments (A1 and A2).For these grandfathered applications, NIH expects that any A2 will be submitted no later than January 7, 2011, and NIH will not accept A2 applications after that date. Renewals. Applicants may not submit a renewal application.