When submitting a R01 application, first evaluate whether you are a 'New Investigator (NI)  or Early Stage Investigator (ESI) ' according to the NIH Early Stage and New Investigators Policies. R01 applications from ESIs/NIs will be considered among NIA's highest priorities in the use of discretionary funds to make awards selectively. Therefore, such applications may be funded out of strict percentile order. ESIs/NIs should examine our funding policy  to determine their relative advantage in competition for R01s.
For more information and resources from NIA, see: Finding Your Way—Resources for Early Career Researchers 
First time R01 applicants should register themselves in NIH eRA  before submitting their R01 to track an application as well as confirm ESI or NI status.
Apart from the "R01" award NIA offers a variety of mechanisms for junior faculty and postdoctoral fellows to advance their research and career training in aging. See Research Career Development Awards .
For detailed information, click on the NIH Office of Extramural Research New Investigator Program .
For more information on how to write a grant or get a grant from NIH, see: