Many people are unprepared to deal with the legal and financial consequences of a serious illness such as Alzheimer's disease. Legal and medical experts encourage people recently diagnosed with a serious illness—particularly one that is expected to cause declining mental and physical health—to examine and update their financial and health care arrangements as soon as possible. Basic legal and financial instruments, such as a will, a living trust, and advance directives, are available to ensure that the person's late-stage or end-of-life health care and financial decisions are carried out.
A complication of diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease is that the person may lack or gradually lose the ability to think clearly. This change affects his or her ability to participate meaningfully in decision making and makes early legal and financial planning even more important. Although difficult questions often arise, advance planning can help people with Alzheimer’s and their families clarify their wishes and make well-informed decisions about health care and financial arrangements.
When possible, advance planning should take place soon after a diagnosis of early-stage Alzheimer’s disease while the person can participate in discussions. People with early-stage disease are often capable of understanding many aspects and consequences of legal decision making. However, legal and medical experts say that many forms of planning can help the person and his or her family even if the person is diagnosed with later-stage Alzheimer’s.
There are good reasons to retain the services of a lawyer when preparing advance planning documents. For example, a lawyer can help interpret different State laws and suggest ways to ensure that the patient's and family's wishes are carried out. It's important to understand that laws vary by State, and changes in situation— for instance, a divorce, relocation, or death in the family—can influence how documents are prepared and subsequently maintained.
When families begin the legal planning process, there are a number of strategies and legal documents they need to discuss. Depending on the family situation and the applicable State laws, some or all of the following terms and documents may be introduced by the lawyer hired to assist in this process. Broadly speaking, these documents can be divided into two groups:
Advance directives for health care are documents that communicate the health care wishes of a person with Alzheimer’s disease. These decisions are then carried out after the person no longer can make decisions. In most cases, these documents must be prepared while the person is legally able to execute them.
A Living Will records a person's wishes for medical treatment near the end of life. It may do the following:
A Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care designates a person, sometimes called an agent or proxy, to make health care decisions when the person with Alzheimer’s disease no longer can do so. Depending on State laws and the person's preferences, the proxy might be authorized to:
A Do Not Resuscitate (DNR) Order instructs health care professionals not to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation if a person’s heart stops or if he or she stops breathing. A DNR order is signed by a doctor and put in a person’s medical chart.
Access to private medical information is closely regulated. The person with AD must state in writing who can see or use personal medical records.
Advance directives for financial and estate management must be created while the person with Alzheimer’s still can make these decisions (sometimes referred to as "having legal capacity" to make decisions). These directives may include some or all of the following:
A Will indicates how a person's assets and estate will be distributed upon death. It also can specify:
Medical and legal experts say that the newly diagnosed person with Alzheimer’s and his or her family should move quickly to make or update a will and secure the estate.
A Durable Power of Attorney for Finances names someone to make financial decisions when the person with Alzheimer’s disease no longer can. It can help people with the disease and their families avoid court actions that may take away control of financial affairs.
A Living Trust provides instructions about the person's estate and appoints someone, often referred to as the trustee, to hold title to property and funds for the beneficiaries. The trustee follows these instructions after the person no longer can manage his or her affairs.
The person with Alzheimer’s disease also can name the trustee as the health care proxy through the durable power of attorney for health care.
A living trust can:
Health Care Providers—Health care providers cannot act as legal or financial advisors, but they can encourage planning discussions between patients and their families. Qualified clinicians can also guide patients, families, the care team, attorneys, and judges regarding the patient's ability to make decisions.
Elder Law Attorneys (ELAs)—An ELA helps older people and families:
The National Academy of Elder Law Attorneys and the American Bar Association can help families find qualified ELAs. See the list of resources at the end of this fact sheet for more information.
Geriatric Care Managers (GCMs)—GCMs are trained social workers or nurses who can help people with Alzheimer’s disease and their families:
Steps for Getting Your Affairs in Order
Start discussions early. The rate of decline differs for each person with Alzheimer’s disease, and his or her ability to be involved in planning will decline over time. People in the early stages of the disease may be able to understand the issues, but they may also be defensive or emotionally unable to deal with difficult questions. Remember that not all people are diagnosed at an early stage. Decision making already may be difficult when Alzheimer’s disease is diagnosed.
Review plans over time. Changes in personal situations—such as a divorce, relocation, or death in the family— and in State laws can affect how legal documents are prepared and maintained. Review plans regularly, and update documents as needed.
Reduce anxiety about funeral and burial arrangements. Advance planning for the funeral and burial can provide a sense of peace and reduce anxiety for both the person with Alzheimer’s and the family.
Families who cannot afford a lawyer still can do advance planning. Samples of basic health planning documents can be downloaded from State government websites. Area Agency on Aging officials may provide legal advice or help. Other possible sources of legal assistance and referral include State legal aid offices, the State bar association, local nonprofit agencies, foundations, and social service agencies.
Facing Alzheimer’s disease can be emotionally wrenching for all concerned. A legal expert and members of the health care team can help the person and family address end-of-life issues. Advance health care and financial planning can help people diagnosed with Alzheimer’s and their families confront tough questions about future treatment, caregiving, and legal arrangements.
Overview of Medical, Legal, and Financial Planning Documents
How It Is Used
Describes and instructs how the person wants end-of-life health care managed
Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care
Gives a designated person the authority to make health care decisions on behalf of the person with Alzheimer’s
Do Not Resuscitate Form
Instructs health care professionals not to perform CPR in case of stopped heart or stopped breathing
Legal/ Financial Document
How It Is Used
Indicates how a person's assets and estate will be distributed among beneficiaries after his/her death
Durable Power of Attorney for Finances
Gives a designated person the authority to make legal/financial decisions on behalf of the person with Alzheimer’s
Gives a designated person (trustee) the authority to hold and distribute property and funds for the person with Alzheimer’s
Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral (ADEAR) Center
P.O. Box 8250
Silver Spring, MD 20907-8250
A service of the National Institute on Aging, the ADEAR Center offers information and publications for families, caregivers, and professionals on diagnosis, treatment, patient care, caregiver needs, long-term care, education and training, and research related to Alzheimer’s disease. Staff members answer telephone, email, and written requests and make referrals to local and national resources. The ADEAR website offers free publications in English and Spanish, email alert and online Connections newsletter subscriptions, the Alzheimer’s clinical trials database, the AD Library database, and more. An additional helpful resources is Legal and Financial Issues for People with Alzheimer’s Disease: A Resource List.
Families often need information about community resources, such as home care, adult day care, and nursing homes. Contact the Eldercare Locator to find these resources in your area. The Eldercare Locator is a service of the Administration on Aging.
This service of the NIA offers many helpful publications, including:
National Library of Medicine
Visit this senior-friendly website from the National Institute on Aging and the National Library of Medicine, offering health information for older adults. Special features make it simple to use. For example, you can click on a button to make the type larger.
601 E Street, NW
Washington, DC 20049
1-888-OUR-AARP (1-888-687-2277; toll-free)
Aging with Dignity
P.O. Box 1661
Tallahassee, FL 32302-1661
1-888-5WISHES (1-888-594-7437; toll-free)
225 N. Michigan Avenue, Suite 1700
Chicago, IL 60601-7633
American Bar Association
Commission on Law and Aging
740 15th Street, NW
Washington, DC 20005-1022
Family Caregiver Alliance
180 Montgomery Street , Suite 1100
San Francisco, CA 94104
National Academy of Elder Law Attorneys
1577 Spring Hill Road, Suite 220
Vienna, VA 22182
National Association of Professional Geriatric Care Managers
3275 West Ina Road, Suite 130
Tucson, AZ 85741
National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization
1700 Diagonal Rd., Suite 625
Alexandria, VA 22314
National Institute on Aging
National Institutes of Health
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
NIH Publication No. 08-6422
June 2008 (updated August 2010)
Publication Date: August 2010
Page Last Updated: May 21, 2013